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Fundamentals of Brushless DC Motor Design

About the Course

A comprehensive course that covers: basic concepts; configurations of BLDC motors; magnetic modeling; steel selection; magnet characteristics and selection; electrical and mechanical considerations; brushless motor operation; magnetic elements and their performances; sizing and shaping the motor; stator winding design; motor drive schemes; performance characteristics; motor commutation patterns; thermal considerations; and clean sheet design methodology and approach.

Brad FrustaglioAbout the Instructor

Brad Frustaglio is the Vice President of Engineering at Yeadon Energy Systems. He is a graduate of Michigan Technological University and a registered professional engineer. He has 15 years of experience with YES™ as an electric motor designer, electric motor tester, and software developer. Mr. Frustaglio is a member of MCMA, and is a contributor to the Handbook of Small Electric Motors. He is the on-going software developer and software trainer of YES software, an electric motor design tool. He has design expertise in BLDC, PMSM, Single and Polyphase AC Induction, Stepper, Universal, PMDC motors, linear actuators and specialty electromagnetic devices. His design experience includes numerous applications from household appliances, industrial, automotive accessory, automotive traction, medical, aerospace and specialty high temperature motors and actuators.

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All courses include take-home reference materials!

Course Outline

  1. Basic Concepts
    1. Torque
    2. Motor Action
    3. Mechanical and Electrical Measures
    4. Motor Size
  2. Basic Configurations of BLDC Motors
    1. Outer Rotor
    2. Inner Rotor
    3. Inner Rotor Slotless
    4. Switched or Variable Reluctance
  3. Magnetic Modeling
    1. Magnetic Circuit Concepts
    2. Magnetic/Electrical Analogy
    3. Carter's Coefficient
    4. Material Properties
    5. Steel
    6. Permanent Magnets
    7. Magnet Operating Point
  4. Steel Selection
    1. Motor Construction
    2. Stator Assembly
    3. Steel Characteristics
    4. Core Losses
    5. Annealing and Processing
    6. Appropriate Gages for Various Applications
    7. Assembly Methods
    8. Housings
  5. Magnet Characteristics and Selection
    1. Magnet Types and Properties
    2. Operating Temperature Ranges
    3. Magnetizing Fixtures and Techniques
    4. Magnet Testing
  6. Electrical and Mechanical Relationships
    1. Inductances - Self and Mutual
    2. Energy and Co-Energy
    3. Slot Leakages
    4. Force, Mutual and Reluctance Torques
  7. Brushless Motor Operation
    1. Magnetic Circuit Model
    2. Flux Linkage
    3. Back EMF
    4. Forces on Conductors
  8. Magnetic Elements and Their Performance
    1. Methodologies
    2. Magnetic Circuit Configurations
    3. Reluctance
    4. Member Reluctance Commutations
    5. Magnetic Reluctance Factor
    6. Magnetic Leakage Factor
    7. Load Line
    8. Magnet Flux Density
    9. MMF Drops
    10. Cogging Effect of Skew
  9. Sizing and Shaping the Motor
    1. Shafts
    2. Bearings
    3. Shaft and Bearing System
    4. Magnet Wire
    5. Insulation
    6. Motor Envelope
    7. Motor Cross Section
    8. Phases
    9. Poles
    10. Teeth
    11. Flux Densities
    12. Tooth Tips
    13. Structural Magnetic Materials
    14. Rotor Inertia
  10. Stator Winding Design Considerations
    1. Winding Patterns - Series and Parallel
    2. Number of Conductors - Wire Size and Slot Fill
  11. Motor Drive Schemes
    1. Two Phase Motors
    2. One Phase On - Two Phase On Operation
    3. H-Bridge Drives - Serve Drives
    4. Three Phase Motors
    5. Delta and Wye Connections
    6. PWM Methods
  12. Performance Characteristics
    1. Relation of Torque Constant and Back EMF Constant to Current Profiles
    2. Phase Resistance
    3. Establish Speed-Torque Curve
    4. Optimize Motor Constant
    5. Power, Losses, Efficiency
  13. Motor Commutation Patterns
    1. Trapezoidal vs. Sinusoidal Drives
    2. Torque vs. Position
    3. Commutation Sequence
  14. Thermal Considerations
    1. Thermal Models
    2. Thermal Time Constant
    3. Thermal Resistance
    4. Thermal Capacity
  15. Clean Sheet Design
    1. Methodology and Approach
    2. Procedure Summary

Work Session

Clean Sheet Design Example

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